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Malaga History

MALAGA UNTIL THE ANTIQUITY

Málaga has taken more than 3000 years to become the city that we can observe today.

The beginning of Malaga was at the time of the Phoenicians, they settled at the mouth of the river Guadalhorce and it was there when a colony was founded called Malaka.

From there began to trade with other small towns.

These merchants formed several colonies and, because the Punic dominated the trade, in Century 6th b.C. The Phoenician colonies were abandoned.

Two distinct groups were formed from this period until the change of era: Libiofenicios (inhabitants of the coastal area) and Indigenous or Iberian (inhabitants of the interior).

At the end of the 3rd century b.C. Romans dominate the area and unify Malaga. In addition, they impose as language the Latin and change the customs and the life of those who inhabited the place.

After two centuries, Málaga began to connect with other territories through new means of communication and created new legal statutes, among them the 1st century Lex Flavia Malacitana.

Nowadays you can see remains of this period such as the Roman Theater or the Piletas de Garum.

In the 3rd century great changes took place, among them the extension of Christianity.

The Roman Empire fell and the dominion of Byzantium was produced until the 7th century, when the Visigoths were expelled. Up

MALAGA IN THE MUSLIM TIME

In the year 711 the Muslim conquest takes place and the indigenous population has to take refuge in the Natural Park of the Montes de Málaga.

For 8 years, Malaga will belong to the Islamists.

The process of the change of the feudal culture to the Islamic culture takes place between centuries VIII and IX impelled by the Umayyads (a new dynasty).

One of the most important rebellions against this dynasty was that of Omar Ben Hafsún in the 9th century. This rebellion was the last attempt to maintain the feudal privileges of the Hispanic-Gothic aristocracy.

The rebellion was a failure and continued the Islamic progress with the intensification of irrigation and with the proliferation of farms.

The caliphate of Cordoba works well until 976, this year occurs the death of al-Hakam II and gives rise to the throne of his son who was not yet of age.

An economic crisis occurs and the Taifa kingdoms are divided giving rise to different caliphs.

It is at this time when the Alcazaba of Malaga is built.

At the end of the 11th century, Berber and Almohad empires are integrated and the final implementation of the city of Malaga in the western Mediterranean area is contemplated. Up

MALAGA NAZARÍ UNTIL THE RECONQUISTA

In the Nazarí era lived in Malaga mostly under the Muslim Orthodox religion and a minority under the Jewish religion.

The highlight of this time is agriculture with the fig tree and the vineyard, giving rise to the wine history of Malaga. The Port of Malaga is also gaining importance because it is the point of departure of the foreign trade of the Kingdom of Granada.

The reconquest takes place between the years 1482-1499 where the Catholic kings get the victory in the Fields of Lopera.

In 1487 there was an episode of the reconquest in which the city of Malaga falls into the hands of the Catholic kings. The kings allowed only 25 families to stay in Malaga as long as it was in Mudejar form.

A Mudejar was a Muslim who was under Christian rule.

After that year, there are changes in the urban layout of Malaga.

Between 1501 and 1570, the church disregarded religious tasks with the Moorish Malaga, which joined the feigned character of the conversion and produced that Islam survived. Up

MALAGA IN THE BAROQUE

In the 16th and 17th centuries the expulsion of the kingdom of Granada, floods caused by the river Guadalmedina and epidemics affecting the population.

The main source of income Malaga had at this time was wine and raisins (which were exported from the port of Malaga, so the port, made Malaga the main market place).

The situation of Malaga transformed the city into pieces of the political checkerboard of the Austrias.

In this period the church was very close to completing the network of charitable and religious institutions throughout the diocese.

With the brotherhoods created around the main temples became a religious area and this gave rise to the celebration of Holy Week, the great festival of Malaga that today can continue to enjoy.

The Jesuits founded a school where the youth were educated. In addition, on the other side of the walls of the city creates the Royal Hospital of San Lázaro. Up

MALAGA IN ILLUSTRATION

In this century, the great catastrophes prevail, but it does not prevent that the population Malaga continues growing.

There was a great work in the port that was the unavoidable structure for the Malaga wines to leave Europe and condition the entire Spanish system of economy: wine and raisins exported exceeded the rest of the production.

The cabildo was the most powerful institution since it knew all the needs of the Malaga people.

The regidores, the mayor and the rulers were called "the city". Any citizen matter was controlled by the town hall in the name of the king.

The society was divided into three groups: the common people, the nobility and the clergy.

The nobility and the clergy had privileges and obligations. Part of his duties were to defend the people with prayers and weapons. The people did not have privileges, but among the obligations that it had was to correspond the defense of the other groups with the benefit that they obtained from the work. Up

MALAGA IN THE 19TH CENTURY

This century does not begin in the best possible way. Here we find a Málaga that suffers the consequences of the war against Great Britain, a strong epidemic of yellow fever, the war of independence.

And, to make matters worse, during the reign of Fernando VII the economy stalled and political instability ensued (continuous political struggles between absolutists and liberals).

During one of the absolutist repressions there was the execution of General Torrijos and his companions (today a monument to Torrijos can be seen in the Plaza de la Merced).

In the middle of the century Málaga is economically reactive and is among the main places of commerce in Spain with the textile industry, manufacturing activities and ironworks.

Málaga contributed to the triumph of liberalism in Spain.

After the death of Fernando VII, the city initiated insurrectional movements to prevent a political involution.

In 1868 a military pronouncement takes place that ends with the reign of Isabel II.

In the 1970s steel, agriculture and commerce began to fall. Because of this the tourist industry was formed whose main interest was to take advantage of the privileged climate and situation of Malaga. Up

MALAGA IN THE 20TH CENTURY

In Malaga, changes occur at the beginning of the 20th century as the new operation of the Hydroelectric and the circulation of trams through the city.

In 1918 occurred in Spain an epidemic of influenza that affected the city of Malaga. From that year begin the social conflicts and the Bolshevik triennium until 1920.

The census of Malaga is very low due to emigration. Public works begin in the city.

At the end of the year 1920 there is a regrouping of republicans, strengthening of the working-class left and a fragmentation of the monarchical parties.

Málaga had a cultural position of lack of freedoms and low cultural level, it is now when an intellectual movement arises that will have influences in the future.

In 1933 begins an interior exile of Blas Infante that ends in 1936 with the triumph of Popular Front.

With this right and left triumph, they face on the street. The most active groups in this era of violence were the Falangists and the Cenetists who preluded the civil war.

Then war and repression begin.

Starting in 1950, a dual economy is affirmed: modern and progressive sector (tourism) and traditional and regressive sector (agriculture and the peasant world).

From 1960 to 1975 two events happen: The economic recession and the consolidation of the duality of Malaga.

The advance of tourism provokes a strong demographic growth in all the Costa del Sol, therefore, an economic policy that seeks to attract foreign capitals and tourists is put in place.

At the beginning of 1970 a crisis occurs, that together with the expansion of 1960 will bring about decisive changes in the city.

The city grows very quickly and in a disorderly way, the political and trade union activity of opposition to the regime resumes, a cultural recovery takes place and the university is created.

In this way, Malaga begins its new historical stage in democracy. Up

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